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21 ARMY GROUP HEADQUARTERS

Headquarters 21 Army Group. War Establishment XIV/1/2. October 1944.
General Headquarters 2nd Echelon. War Establishment III/2/4. August 1943.

War Establishment XIV/1/2 with an effective date of 18 October 1944 replaced XIV/1/1 but is very similar to it. War Establishment XIV/1/3 with an effective date of January 1945 has an increase in Clerks in some sections plus a number of increments.

Headquarters 21st Army Group was a very large and complex organisation. In common with most headquarters it consisted of a small Tactical Headquarters, a larger Main Headquarters and a larger still Rear Headquarters.

Tactical Headquarters contained only those personnel which were needed for the command of the organisation. Here were General (later Field Marshall) Montgomery and his personal Staff. Gathered around the headquarters were defence troops, Phantom (GHQ Liaison Regiment), Signals and other essentials, but none of the Staff and Headquarters personnel who remained many miles to the rear. Tactical Headquarters was as far forward as was practical and was usually under canvas and thus ready to move at short notice.

Main Headquarters was the home of the General Staff where detailed planning and Staff work concerned with operations was carried out. The Chief of Staff commanded Main Headquarters and was a frequent visitor at Tactical Headquarters. Usually this large concentration of key Staff officers was located well to the rear and whenever possible it was housed in permanent buildings.

Rear Headquarters contained the Staff of the ‘A’ and ‘Q’ branches as well as the Staff of the various services and departments. The detailed work of supplying and maintaining the Army Group was done here. Much of the work was routine and went on regardless of operations but clearly operations depended to some extent on the work done at Rear Headquarters. Usually this headquarters was located far to the rear and in permanent accommodation.  

There had been a Headquarters 21 Army Group since July 1943 and this was based on WE VIII/502/2. The War Establishment to be used on the Continent of Europe was WE XIV/I/I which had an effective date of 20 May 1944. It was superseded by the very similar WE XIV/I/2 which had a slightly larger number of personnel. WE XIV/I/2 has an appendix listing some of the vehicles attached from other units, signals, defence and transport

Note that the total of 3,450 personnel listed on this War Establishment does not include other personnel who would be attached to the headquarters. These would include Royal Air Force and Royal Navy Staffs which apart from their own headquarters maintained small sections at 21Army Group Headquarters. There were also the transport units providing Staff cars, trucks and lorries for the transport and supply of the headquarters. There was a sizeable Royal Signals presence at each of the headquarters. There were detachments from Phantom (GHQ Liaison Regiment). There were also defence units. All of these are the subject of separate War Establishments 

There was also a separate headquarters for 21 Army Group Line of Communications and a Headquarters 21 Army Group Civil Affairs. Finally, although not part of 21 Army Group there was a sizeable British Staff at Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force.


21 ARMY GROUP HEADQUARTERS
War Establishment XIV/1/2. October 1944

Military Secretary’s Branch
Colonel, Deputy Military Secretary
Assistant Military Secretary
2 Deputy Assistant Military Secretary
2 Staff Captain
18 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
10 Privates
Clerks include five shorthand typists.


21 Army Group Main Headquarters
Staff
Major General, Chief of the General Staff
Captain, Personal Assistant
2 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
Sergeant
One of the Clerks will be a shorthand typist.

General Staff Branch
Operations, training and infantry
Brigadier General Staff
3 Colonel General Staff
3 General Staff Officers 1st Grade
9 General Staff Officers 2nd Grade
8 General Staff Officers 3rd Grade
Supervising Officer (Quartermaster)
41 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
4 Sergeant
6 Corporal
6 Lance Corporal
20 Private
Thirteen Clerks will be shorthand typists
6 Clerks RASC trained in the reproduction of tactical sketches, including
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
3 Private

Liaison
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
7 General Staff officers 2nd Grade
2 Staff Lieutenants
2 Lieutenants
Note that these are also shown in the booklet on 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters.

Plans
Brigadier General Staff
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
2 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
9 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
Staff Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
3 Private
3 Clerk RASC trained in the reproduction of tactical sketches, including
Sergeant  
2 Lance Corporal

Intelligence
Brigadier General Staff
Personal assistant, Warrant Officer Class I
Clerk RE
41 Clerk RASC including
Warrant officer Class I
2 Warrant Officer Class II
3 Staff Sergeant
4 Sergeant
8 Corporal
6 Lance Corporal
17 Private
11 Clerks RASC are short hand typists
2 Sergeant document examiners who will be linguists and may be from any arm.
5 topographical draughtsman RE including
Sergeant
Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
Private
mechanical draughtsman RE.

Intelligence (X)
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade

Intelligence (A)
2 General Staff Officer 1st Grade
2 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
3 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
5 Intelligence Officers, Captain or Lieutenant

Intelligence (Technical)
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
2 Intelligence Officers, Captain or Lieutenant

Intelligence (Engineers)
Staff Officer RE, Major
Staff Officer RE, Captain
Intelligence Officers RE, Captain or Lieutenant. 

Intelligence (A5)
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
3 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
4 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
Corporal
2 Private
Clerks include one trained in the reproduction of tactical sketches and one shorthand typist.

Army Photographic Interpretation
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade

Intelligence (B) and Intelligence (C)
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
Intelligence (B)
2 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
2 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
3 Intelligence Officers, Captain or Lieutenant
Intelligence (C)
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade

Intelligence (S)
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
2 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade, Liaison.
2 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
2 Intelligence Officers, Captain or Lieutenant
10 Clerk RASC or Intelligence Corps including
Warrant officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
2 Private

Interrogation section
Intelligence Officer, Major
3 Intelligence Officers, Captain or Lieutenant
Sergeant, Intelligence Corps
2 Corporal, Intelligence Corps
Sergeant instrument mechanic, Royal Signals
Corporal instrument mechanic, Royal Signals
lineman, Royal Signals

Staff Duties
Brigadier General Staff
Colonel General Staff
2 General Staff Officer 1st Grade
6 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
6 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
Supervising Officer, Quartermaster
38 Clerk RASC including
Warrant officer Class I
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
3 Sergeant
9 Corporal
4 Lance Corporal
18 Private
Clerks include seven shorthand typists

Air
Brigadier General Staff
Personal Assistant, Warrant Officer Class I
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
6 Clerk RASC including
Staff Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
3 Private
Clerks include one trained in the reproduction of tactical sketches and two shorthand typists
Liaison with Headquarters, Allied Tactical Air Force 
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
2 Clerk RASC including
Corporal
Private
Clerks include a shorthand typist
Liaison with Headquarters, 2nd Tactical Air Force
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
Clerk RASC, shorthand typist

Attached to the General Staff
RAC (ROYAL ARMOURED CORP)
Major General
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
3 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
2 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
Staff Lieutenant
13 Clerk RASC including
Warrant officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
3 Corporal
3 Lance Corporal
5 Private
Clerks include three shorthand typists

AFV Inspectorate
Inspector, Lieutenant Colonel
4 Inspector, Major
4 Inspector, Captain (not required overseas)
9 Assistant Inspector
Warrant Officer Clerk (Technical), Warrant Officer Class I, REME
2 Clerk (technical) REME.

Artillery
Major General
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
2 General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
Staff Lieutenant
8 Clerk RA including
Warrant officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
Clerk RASC trained in artillery duties.

Engineers
Major General (Chief Engineer)
Brigadier (Deputy Chief Engineer)
Brigadier (Deputy Chief Engineer – Airfields)
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
3 Lieutenant Colonel, Staff Officer RE
6 Major, Staff Officer RE
2 Captain, Staff Officer RE
Staff Officer 3rd Grade RE
29 Clerk RE including
Warrant Officer Class I
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
4 Sergeant
4 lance Sergeant
6 Corporal
11 Lance Corporal
Clerks may include 50% engineer Clerks
6 engineering draughtsman including
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal

Engineers, Technical
Lieutenant Colonel, Staff Officer RE (Mechanical Equipment)
Lieutenant Colonel, Staff Officer RE (Bomb Disposal)
Major, Staff Officer RE (Mechanical Equipment)
Major, Staff Officer RE (Stores)
Major, Staff Officer RE (Technical)
Major, Staff Officer RE (Geologist)
Captain, Staff Officer RE (Bomb Disposal)

Chemical Warfare
Brigadier (Director of Chemical Warfare)
Colonel (Assistant Director of Chemical Warfare), a physiologist, to be included if required.
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
Major, Deputy Assistant Director of Chemical Warfare (Technical)
Captain, Technical Officer (Chemical Warfare)
4 Clerk RE including
Warrant Officer Class II
Corporal
2 Private

Camouflage
Major, Staff Officer (camouflage
Captain, Staff Officer (camouflage)
Lieutenant, Staff Officer (camouflage)
2 Clerk RASC

Signals
Major General, Signals Officer in Chief
Lieutenant
Brigadier, Deputy Signals Officer in Chief
2 Staff Officer 1st grade Royal Signals
3 Staff Officer 2nd Grade Royal Signals
Staff Officer 3rd Grade Royal Signals (may be ATS)
Lieutenant Colonel, Staff Officer Royal Signals
6 Major, Staff Officer Royal Signals
8 Captain, Staff Officer Royal Signals
lieutenant, Staff Officer Royal Signals
33 Clerk Royal Signals including
Warrant Officer Class I
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
3 Sergeant
6 Corporal
4 Lance Corporal
16 Private
Sergeant draughtsman Royal Signals
2 draughtsman Royal Signals


Publicity and Psychological Warfare
Brigadier General Staff
2 General Staff Officers 1st Grade
4 General Staff Officers 2nd Grade
General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
2 Intelligence Officers, Captain or Lieutenant
8 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
4 Private
Two Clerks will be shorthand typists
6 Clerk RASC (linguist) including
2 Corporal
4 Private
Two Clerks (linguist) will be shorthand typists
Corporal operator RS
2 operator RS
printer (compositor)RE
printer (machine minder) RASC

Passive Air Defence
Lieutenant Colonel, Staff Officer
Major, Staff Officer
Clerk RASC

Scientific Adviser
Brigadier, Scientific Adviser
General Staff Officer 2nd Grade
Sergeant Clerk RASC

Miscellaneous Appointments
Judge Advocate Generals Staff
Brigadier, Deputy Judge Advocate General
Lieutenant Colonel, Assistant Deputy Advocate General
Major (legal)
2 Captains (legal)
Quartermaster
7 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
3 Corporal
Private

Staff Message Control
2 General Staff Officer 3rd Grade
2 Staff lieutenant
29 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer ClassI
2 Warrant Officer ClassII
2 Staff Sergeant
2 lance Sergeant
4 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
16 Private
20 orderly including
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
16 Private

Finance  
Brigadier, Financial Adviser
Major, Assistant Accountant
Captain, Assistant Accountant
2 Clerk RASC including
Corporal
Private
One of whom will be a shorthand typist

Liaison with Allied Contingents
Brigadier, Chief Liaison Officer
Captain, Staff Secretary
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster General
2 Staff Captain
9 Clerk RASC including
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
3 Private

Permanent Presidents, Field General Courts Martial
15 major

Physical Training Staff
Major, Staff Officer for Physical Training
Instructor, (may be any rank decided by the APTC)

Local Administrative Appointments
Lieutenant Colonel, Camp Commandant
Captain, Camp commandant
2 Major, Assistant Camp Commandant
4 Captain, Assistant Camp Commandant
Captain, Adjutant
3 Medical Officer RAMC
Captain, Messing Officer ACC
2 Quartermaster

Regimental Sergeant Major
Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant
3 Company Sergeant Major
3 Company Quartermaster Sergeant
Sergeant RAMC
5 Sergeant (duty NCO)
Corporal (duty NCO)
Sergeant armourer REME
Corporal armourer REME
328 batman
Note: Batmen are provided for all officers. 
Officers of the rank of Colonel and above have a batman of their own.
Officers of the rank of Lieutenant Colonel have a batman between two officers.
Junior officers share a batman between three.
For every three ATS officers filling appointments one batman will be deleted.
For every three officers provided with a batman driver on the War Establishment of GHQ Car Company one batman will be deleted.
4 Butchery dutyman
Corporal railway Clerk
50 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer ClassI
Warrant Officer ClassII
Staff Sergeant
5 Sergeant
9 Corporal
7 Lance Corporal
26 Private
10 Clerk RASC to operate reflex and dyeline machines
3 Clerk RAPC including
Warrant Officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
2 Sergeant CMP
22 Lance Corporal CMP (there are no Private s in the CMP)
98 electric lighting personnel RE including
5 Sergeant fitter RE
5 Corporal fitter RE
5 Sergeant electrician, power station, RE
10 electrician, maintenance RE
12 electrician, wireman, RE
11 engine fitters, IC and pumps, RE
36 engine hands RE
14 pioneer RE
37 general dutyman
89 local security personnel including
Sergeant
Corporal
3 Lance Corporal
83 Private
131 orderlies including
Sergeant
6 Corporal
8 Lance Corporal
116 Private
4 medical officers orderly
3 orderly for postal duties
3 plumber and pipefitter
3 carpenter and joiner
7 ration dutyman including
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
4 Private
13 sanitary dutyman
Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
10 Private
10 storeman
9 water dutyman

Mess Staffs
Warrant Officer Class I ACC for supervision of messes Staffed by male personnel.
Warrant Officer Class II ACC for supervision of messes Staffed by male personnel.
Corporal officers mess cook ACC
54 officers mess cook ACC
2 Corporal Sergeants mess cook ACC
7 Sergeants mess cook ACC
4 Sergeant cook for rank and file mess ACC
4 Corporal cook for rank and file mess ACC
27 Sergeant officers mess stewards
2 Sergeant Sergeants mess caterers
38 officers mess orderly
20 Sergeants mess orderly
24 rank and file mess orderly

Warrant Officer Class II ATS for supervision of messes Staffed by ATS
27 officers mess cook ATS
Sergeant Sergeants mess cook ATS
6 Sergeants mess cook ATS
2 Sergeant rank and files mess cook ATS
2 Corporal rank and files mess cook ATS
12 rank and files mess cook ATS
9 officers mess stewardess ATS
Sergeants mess caterer ATS
4 Sergeants mess assistant cook ATS
8 rank and files mess assistant cook ATS
20 officers mess orderly ATS
9 Sergeants mess orderly ATS
18 rank and files mess orderly ATS

Note: Apart from the above ATS cooks and orderlies the War Establishment notes that of the total number of Clerks RASC up to 218 will in fact be Clerks ATS. This would give a total of 338 ATS excluding officers. There were also ATS drivers but these are on a separate establishment.


21 Army Group Rear Headquarters
Branch of the Adjutant and Quartermaster General
Major General, in charge of administration (commands Rear Headquarters)
Captain, personal assistant
Deputy Assistant Adjutant and Quartermaster General
Quartermaster, Chief Clerk
Quartermaster, Assistant Chief Clerk
13 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Sergeant
2 Corporal
1 Lance Corporal
7 Private
Clerks include two shorthand typists

Adjutant Generals Branch
Brigadier, Deputy Adjutant General
Assistant Adjutant General
2 Staff Captain
Quartermaster, supervising officer
16 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
8 Private
Clerks include seven shorthand typists

Organisation
Colonel A
Warrant Officer Class II, personal assistant
2 Assistant Adjutant General  
Assistant Director of ATS
5 Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
9 Staff Captain
Staff Captain ATS
60 Clerks RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Staff Sergeant
6 Sergeant
12 Corporal
9 Lance Corporal
30 Private
Clerks include seven shorthand typists

Personal Services 
Colonel A
Warrant Officer Class II, personal assistant
Assistant Adjutant General  
3 Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
3 Staff Captain
28 Clerks RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Staff Sergeant
3 Sergeant
4 Corporal
4 Lance Corporal
14 Private
Clerks include four shorthand typists

Quartermaster Generals Branch
Brigadier, Deputy Quartermaster General. (Principal Staff officer at rear headquarters)
Staff Captain,
Quartermaster, Supervising Officer
6 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
3 Private

Maintenance
Brigadier Q (Maintenance)
3 Assistant Quartermaster General
6 Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General (one may be ATS)
4 Staff Captain (two may be ATS)
31 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
3 Staff Sergeant
3 Sergeant
4 Corporal
4 Lance Corporal
15 Private
Clerks include four shorthand typists

Army Equipment and Statistics
Brigadier Q (Army Equipment and Statistics)
2 Assistant Quartermaster General
4 Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General 
3 Staff Captain 
22 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
3 Corporal
3 Lance Corporal
10 Private
Clerks include four shorthand typists
Staff Officer 1st Grade (statistics)
3 Staff Officer 2nd Grade (statistics)
5 Staff Officer 3rd Grade (statistics)
78 Clerk RASC including
2 Warrant Officer Class I
4 Warrant Officer Class II
1 Staff Sergeant
12 Sergeant
40 Corporal
5 Lance Corporal
14 Private
Clerks include four shorthand typists
Warrant Officer Class I Instrument Mechanic (type cipher) REME
Staff Sergeant Instrument Mechanic (type cipher) REME

Plans
Colonel Q (Plans)
Assistant Quartermaster General
2 Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General 
Staff Captain 
14 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
Corporal
3 Lance Corporal
6 Private
Clerks include four shorthand typists

Movements
Brigadier, Deputy Quartermaster General (movement and transportation).
Lieutenant, Staff Secretary
Clerk RASC
Note: Transportation is part of the responsibility of this section but is listed under services.
Brigadier Q (Movements)
Colonel Q (Movements)
4 Assistant Quartermaster General
12 Deputy Assistant Quartermaster General 
13 Staff Captain 
17 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
12 Private
Clerks include two shorthand typists
24 Clerk RE including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Staff Sergeant
6 Sergeant
3 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
10 Private

Services
Chaplains
Chaplain 1st Class, Deputy Chaplain General
Chaplain 2nd Class, Chief Staff Chaplain
Chaplain 3rd Class, Staff Chaplain
Chaplain 4th Class, Staff Chaplain
3 Clerk RASC including
Corporal
2 Private
Note: In addition to the Staff listed above 21 Army Group was allocated one chaplain for every 1,250 army group troops. This came to a considerable number but they were dispersed to the troops for whose spiritual welfare they were responsible. One in every ten chaplains was to be a Senior Chaplain to the Forces.

Survey
Brigadier, Director of Survey
Colonel, Deputy Director of Survey
Assistant Director of Survey
Deputy Assistant of Survey
Captain RE
4 Clerk (survey) RE including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Corporal
Private
3 Clerk RASC including
Corporal
Lance Corporal
Private
4 draughtsman (topographical) RE including
Sergeant
Lance Corporal
2 Private
5 surveyors (trigonometrical) RE including
Sergeant
Corporal
3 Private
3 map distributor including
Lance Corporal
Private

Works
Headquarters section
Major General, Director of Works
Lieutenant, Staff secretary
Brigadier, Deputy Director of Works
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Works
2 Staff Captain
Lieutenant Colonel, Senior Surveyor of Works
2 Captain, Surveyor of Works
10 engineer Clerk including
Warrant Officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
2 Corporal
4 Lance Corporal
6 surveyors Clerks including
Warrant Officer Class I
Sergeant
Corporal
3 Lance Corporal
Clerk RASC

Works section
Colonel, Deputy Director of Works
3 Assistant Director of Works
7 Deputy Assistant Director of Works
11 Staff Captain
2 Inspectors of RE machinery
30 engineer Clerk including
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
5 Sergeant
27 Corporal
15 Lance Corporal
6 engineer draughtsman including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Staff Sergeant
3 Sergeant
3 Corporal
6 Lance Corporal

Stores section
Brigadier, Deputy Director of Engineer Stores
Lieutenant, Staff Secretary
Colonel, Deputy Director of Engineer Stores
4 Assistant Director of Engineer Stores
13 Deputy Assistant Director of Engineer Stores
21 Staff Captain
2 Quartermaster, Stores Officer
2 Inspectors of RE machinery
81 engineer Clerk including
Warrant Officer Class I  
5 Warrant Officer Class II
7 Staff Sergeant
6 Sergeant
20 Corporal
42 Lance Corporal
2 Sergeant military mechanist (electrical or mechanical)

Forestry Section
Assistant Director of Works (Forestry)
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Works (Forestry)
2 Staff Captain
5 Clerk RE including
Staff Sergeant
Corporal
3 Private

Airfield Construction Section
Colonel, Deputy Director of Works
Assistant Director of Works
2 Staff Officers 1st Grade RE
2 Staff Captain
9 engineer Clerk including
Warrant Officer Class II
Sergeant
3 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
4 engineering draughtsman including
Staff Sergeant
Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
Note: Any of the officers in the Airfield Construction Section may be replaced by an RAF officer of equal rank.

Transportation
Brigadier, Director of Transportation
Lieutenant, Staff Secretary
Brigadier, Deputy Director of Transportation
6 Colonel, Deputy Director of Transportation
9 Assistant Director of Transportation
9 Deputy Assistant Director of Transportation
15 Staff Captain
81 Clerk RE including
Warrant Officer Class I  
8 Warrant Officer Class II
6 Staff Sergeant
7 Sergeant
13 Corporal 
11 Lance Corporal
44 Private
8 draughtsman (mechanical) RE including
2 Staff Sergeant
2 Corporal 
Lance Corporal
8 Private
7 draughtsman (railway and port construction) RE including
Corporal 
4 Lance Corporal
2 Private
Note: The total of Corporals includes three lance Sergeants.

Detachable portion
3 Colonel, Deputy Director of Transportation
5 Assistant Director of Transportation
9 Deputy Assistant Director of Transportation
12 Staff Captain
60 Clerk RE including  
3 Warrant Officer Class II
3 Staff Sergeant
8 Sergeant
7 Corporal 
13 Lance Corporal
26 Private
4 draughtsman (mechanical) RE including
Staff Sergeant
Corporal 
Lance Corporal
Private
18 draughtsman (railway and port construction) RE including
Staff Sergeant
2 Sergeant
4 Corporal 
5 Lance Corporal
6 Private
Note: The total of Corporals includes two lance Sergeants.

Training
Assistant Quartermaster General 
Staff Captain 
3 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
Lance Corporal
Private
Clerks include one shorthand typist

Postal
Colonel, Deputy Director of Army Postal Services
Assistant Director of Army Postal Services
Deputy Assistant Director of Army Postal Services
3 Staff Captain
18 Clerk RE including  
Warrant Officer Class I
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
3 Corporal 
2 Lance Corporal
9 Private
2 Clerk RASC

Supplies and Transport
Brigadier, Director of Supplies and Transport
Colonel, Deputy Director of Transportation
Quartermaster, Supervising Officer
Warrant Officer Class II, Personal Assistant
11 Clerk RASC including
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
3 Corporal 
6 Private
Clerks include two Group B tradesman, shorthand writers.
3 draughtsman (mechanical) RE 
Transport
Colonel, Deputy Director of Supplies and Transport
2 Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
5 Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
7 Staff Captain
32 Clerk RASC including  
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Warrant Officer Class II
Staff Sergeant
4 Sergeant
5 Corporal 
2 Lance Corporal
17 Private
Clerks include one Group B tradesman, shorthand writer.
Supplies
Colonel, Deputy Director of Supplies and Transport
2 Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
4 Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
8 Staff Captain
For local resources
Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
3 Staff Captain
33 Clerk RASC including  
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Warrant Officer Class II
2 Staff Sergeant
4 Sergeant
5 Corporal 
4 Lance Corporal
15 Private
Clerks include one Group B tradesman, shorthand writer.

NAAFI
The NAAFI was a non profit making corporation providing catering and refreshments for all three services. In theatre of was NAAFI employees were incorporated in the armed forces.
Lieutenant Colonel, Liaison Officer
Petrol Oil and Lubricants
Colonel, Deputy Director of Supplies and Transport
2 Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
4 Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
4 Staff Captain
Technical
Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport (Chemist)
2 Staff Captain
34 Clerk RASC including  
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Warrant Officer Class II
Staff Sergeant
5 Sergeant
4 Corporal 
4 Lance Corporal
17 Private
Clerks include one Group B tradesman, shorthand writer.
Administrative
Deputy Assistant Director of Supplies and Transport
Staff Captain
16 Clerk RASC including  
Warrant Officer Class II
2 Sergeant
2 Corporal 
2 Lance Corporal
9 Private
Catering
Lieutenant Colonel, Catering Adviser
Major, Assistant Catering Adviser
4 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
Private

Printing and Stationary
Assistant Director of Printing and Stationary Services
Deputy Assistant Director of Printing and Stationary Services
2 Captain
Lieutenant
8 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class II
Staff Sergeant
2 Corporal
4 Private

Medical
Brigadier, Director of Medical Services
Warrant Officer Class II, personal assistant
Colonel, Deputy Director of Medical Services
Colonel, Deputy Director of Hygiene
Colonel, Deputy Director of Pathology
Colonel, Deputy Director of Dental Services
3 Lieutenant Colonel, Assistant Director of Medical Services
Assistant Director of Hygiene
Assistant Director of Pathology
3 Deputy Assistant Director of Medical Services 
Captain or Lieutenant, Supervising Officer
Consultants and advisers to be implemented only as required.
Colonel Consultant Physician
Colonel Consultant Surgeon
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Psychiatry
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Radiology
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Orthopaedics
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Anaesthetics
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Opthalmology
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Venereology
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Dermatology
Lieutenant Colonel Adviser, Neurology

Chief Principal Matron, Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service 
Matron, Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service 

19 Clerk RAMC for medical Staff including
Warrant Officer Class I
Staff Sergeant
3 Sergeant
5 Corporal 
9 Private
4 Clerk for Queen Alexandra’s Imperial Military Nursing Service including
Sergeant
Corporal
2 Private
Warrant Officer Class II Clerk Orderly for Army dental Corp
Clerk orderly for Army Dental Corp

Ordnance
Brigadier, Director of Ordnance Services
3 Colonel, Deputy Director of Ordnance Services
7 Assistant Director of Ordnance Services
13 Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services
7 Captain RAOC
7 Captain or Subaltern RAOC
4 ammunition examiners including
Warrant Officer Class II
3 Sergeant
94 Clerk RAOC including
Conductor RAOC
3 Warrant Officer Class I  
12 Warrant Officer Class II
7 Staff Sergeant
19 Sergeant
13 Corporal 
13 Lance Corporal
27 Private
Clerks include fifteen shorthand typists
18 Clerk RASC including
Corporal
3 Lance Corporal
14 Private
Note: Conductor is a rank peculiar to the RAOC and is the highest Warrant Officer rank in the army. It dates back to the days when all artillery belonged to the Board of Ordnance and was only loaned to the army and navy. In the army a Conductor holding a warrant from the Board of Ordnance was responsible for the guns.

REME
Brigadier, Director of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
2 Colonel, Deputy Director of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
3 Assistant Director of Electrical and Mechanical Engineering
8 Deputy Assistant Director of Ordnance Services
8 Captain
2 Subaltern
36 Clerk, technical, REME including
Warrant Officer Class I  
3 Warrant Officer Class II
3 Staff Sergeant
5 Sergeant
6 Corporal 
3 Lance Corporal
15 Private
Clerks include seven shorthand typists
6 Clerk RASC including
2 Lance Corporal
4 Private
5 draughtsman, mechanical, REME
Sergeant
Lance Corporal
3 Private

Pay
Brigadier, Deputy Paymaster in Chief
Lieutenant Colonel, Staff Paymaster 1st Class
Captain, Paymaster
Assistant Paymaster
8 Clerk RAPC including
Warrant Officer Class I
2 Sergeant
5 Private

Labour
Brigadier, Director of Labour
Colonel, Deputy Director of Labour
2 Assistant Director of Labour
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Labour
Staff Captain 
Major, Staff Paymaster 2nd Class
Major, Liaison Officer
14 Clerk RASC including  
Warrant Officer Class II
Staff Sergeant
3 Corporal 
9 Private
Sergeant Clerk RAPC

Provost
Colonel, Provost Marshal
Deputy Provost Marshal
2 Assistant Provost Marshal
3 Deputy Assistant Provost Marshal (includes one junior commander ATS)
10 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
2 Corporal
7 Private

Veterinary
Assistant Director of Army Veterinary and Remount Services
Deputy Assistant Director of Army Remount Services
3 Clerk RAVC including
Staff Sergeant
Corporal
Private
Note: It might seem unusual for a completely mechanised army to have a veterinary service attached but there were large numbers of horses in German service and these needed caring for when they were captured, and eventually horse drawn transport was used in Antwerp. 

Salvage
Colonel, Deputy Director of Salvage
Deputy Assistant Director of Salvage
Staff Captain
5 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
2 Private

Graves Registration
Assistant Director of Graves Registration
3 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
2 Private
Corporal draughtsman (topographical) RE

Welfare
Colonel, Deputy Director of Army Welfare Services
Deputy Assistant Director of Army Welfare Services
Staff Captain
6 Clerk RASC including
Warrant Officer Class I  
Sergeant
Corporal
3 Private
Note: An increment for duty at corps headquarters will be made for each corp as follows
Deputy Assistant Director of Army Welfare Service
Corporal Clerk RASC
Clerk RASC
Also the following are held for employment with Headquarters, Lines of Communication
Assistant Director of Army Welfare Service
Deputy Assistant of Army Welfare Service
4 Staff Captain
6 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
3 Private
Equipment, Centres and Newspapers
Assistant Director of Army Welfare Services
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Army Welfare Services
Staff Captain
7 Clerk RASC including  
Sergeant
2 Corporal
4 Private
Entertainment
Assistant Director of Army Welfare Services
2 Deputy Assistant Director of Army Welfare Services (one for broadcasting)
6 Clerk RASC including  
Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
3 Private

Legal Aid
Major, Legal Aid
3 Captain
12 Clerk RASC including
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
3 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal
5 Private

Education
Colonel, Chief Education Officer
Staff Officer 3rd Class
2 Clerk RASC including
Sergeant
Private

Fire service
Assistant Director of Fire Service
Captain
Sergeant Clerk RASC


GENERAL HEADQUARTERS 2nd ECHELON
The War Establishment for General Headquarters 2nd Echelon was III/2/4 with an effective date of August 1943.

Colonel, Officer in Command
Warrant Officer Class II, Personal Assistant
Clerk, RASC 

Staff
Organisation
Assistant Adjutant General
Sergeant Clerk RASC

Coordination
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Warrant Officer Class I Clerk RASC
Staff Sergeant Clerk RASC
Sergeant Clerk RASC
2 Corporal Clerk RASC
4 Clerk RASC

Central Registry
Supervising Officer (Quartermaster)
Warrant Officer Class II Clerk RASC
Sergeant Clerk RASC
Corporal Clerk RASC
4 Clerk RASC

Statistics
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Staff Sergeant Clerk RASC
Sergeant Clerk RASC
2 Corporal Clerk RASC
4 Clerk RASC

Reinforcements
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Staff Sergeant Clerk RASC
Sergeant Clerk RASC
3 Corporal Clerk RASC
6 Clerk RASC

Note:
If the Reinforcements section is operating separately from the remainder of the General Headquarters, 2nd Echelon the following additions will be made to that section.
Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Warrant Officer Class II Clerk RASC
5 Clerk RASC


PERSONAL SERVICES
Assistant Adjutant General
Sergeant Clerk RASC

Discipline and Pay
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Sergeant Clerk RASC
Corporal Clerk RASC
3 Clerk RASC

Casualties and Efects
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Warrant Officer Class II Clerk
Staff Sergeant Clerk RASC
Sergeant Clerk RASC
3 Corporal Clerk RASC
12 Clerk RASC

Enemy Prisoners of War
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Lieutenant 
Staff Sergeant Clerk RASC
2 Clerk RASC

Records
Assistant Adjutant General
Sergeant Clerk RASC

War Diaries
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General
Staff Captain 
Staff Sergeant Clerk RASC
Corporal Clerk RASC
2 Clerk RASC

RECORDS
Major
4 Captain
Lieutenant
Clerks RASC for officers records
Warrant Officer ClassI
Staff Sergeant
Sergeant
5 Corporal 
7 Private
Clerks for units without orderly room Sergeants
2 Warrant Officer ClassI
7 Warrant Officer ClassII
14 Staff Sergeant
21 Sergeant
38 Corporal 
64 Private
Clerks for units with orderly room Sergeants
74 Sergeant
3 Corporal 
16 Private

NOTE:
The 74 Sergeant includes Warrant Officers, Staff Sergeants and Sergeants who are Clerks or orderly room Sergeants form units


ADMINISTRATIVE
Major, Camp Commandant
Subaltern, Assistant Camp Commandant
Regimental Sergeant Major
Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant
11 batman
Clerk for pay duties
Sergeant Clerk
Corporal Clerk
Clerk
2 officers mess cook
Corporal Sergeants mess cook
Sergeants mess cook
Corporal other ranks mess cook
5 other ranks mess cook
6 driver IC RASC
14 general dutyman
Sergeant offices mess steward
officers mess orderly
10 Sergeants mess orderly
5 other ranks mess orderly
4 regimental police
3 sanitary dutyman
Sergeant, Sergeants mess caterer
2 storeman

Transport
8 bicycle
2 motorcycle
3 car 2 seater 4 2
1 car 4 seater 4 2
1 15cwt GS
1 15cwt water

The above is the basic establishment for an expeditionary force. The following increments were authorised for large forces.

Staff
Officers
When the total all ranks in the force reaches 150,000 two additional Staff Captains are authorised.
When the total all ranks in the force reaches 200,000 four additional Staff Captains are authorised
For every 100,000 above 200,000 one additional Staff Captain is authorised.

Other ranks
Statistical section.
For every 10,000 other ranks in the force one additional Clerk RASC is authorised. Ranks for additional Clerks will be as follows
1 in 18 to be a Corporal
1 in 36 to be a Sergeant
1 in 72 to be a Staff Sergeant

Enemy prisoners of war section
For every 1,000 prisoners of war above 2,000 one additional Clerk RASC is authorised. Ranks for additional Clerks will be as follows.
1 in 12 to be a Corporal
1 in 18 to be a Sergeant
1 in 36 to be a Staff Sergeant
1 in 72 to be a Warrant Officer Class II

All other sections.
When the total all ranks reaches 150,000 three additional Clerks RASC are authorised
For every 10,000 all ranks above 150,000 three additional Clerks RASC are authorised
Ranks for additional Clerks will be as follows.
1 in 4 to be a Corporal
1 in 8 to be a Sergeant
1 in 12 to be a Staff Sergeant
1 in 24 to be a Warrant Officer Class II
1 in 48 to be a Warrant Officer Class I


Records
Officers
For every 50, or part of 50, Clerks above 400 one additional officer is authorised. 
The first officer added will be a lieutenant. 
The second officer will be a captain. 
The third officer added will be a major. 
The fourth officer added will be a lieutenant.
The fifth officer added will be a captain
The sixth officer added will be a major.
And so on.

Other ranks
For every 450 officers or nurses one additional Clerk RASC is authorised.
For every 500 other ranks of arms other than Royal Artillery, Royal Armoured Corp and Infantry one additional Clerk is authorised.
For each Royal Artillery Regiment, Royal Armoured Corp Regiment Infantry Battalion and Reconnaissance Corp Regiment one additional Clerk, RA Clerks section or one orderly room Sergeant is authorised.

In addition for every 600 documents above the 600 under the control of the Clerk, RA Clerks section or orderly room Sergeant, one additional Clerk is authorised.

Administrative
Other ranks
For every additional three or part of three officers below the rank of lieutenant colonel on additional batman is authorised.
When the total headquarters personnel reaches 500 one additional Clerk is authorised.
For every additional 100 personnel over 550 one additional Clerk is authorised.
For every additional 25 Clerks on the headquarters one additional orderly is authorised.
For every 150 or part of 150 above 500 one additional sanitary dutyman is authorised.
For every 250 or part of 250 above 500 one additional storeman is authorised.

Cooks ACC will be increased in accordance with ACI 1222 and mess orderlies in accordance with ACI 133.

WEAPONS
The basic scale of weapons was
27 pistol .38 inch
199 rifle .303 inch
200 machine carbine
2 LMG

For each additional officer one extra pistol is authorised
For any increase in other ranks 50% rifles and 50% machine carbines are authorised
For every additional 200 other ranks one LMG will be added.  

NOTE
Deputy Assistant Adjutant General (Casualties and Effects Section) will be president of the Standing Committee of Adjustment. Members will be obtained from officers within the headquarters.

21 ARMY GROUP TACTICAL HEADQUARTERS

General, Commander in Chief 21st Army Group.
General, later Field Marshal, Sir Bernard Montgomery

It seems odd in retrospect that such a famous figure was but second choice for both of his major roles. In the summer of 1942 Churchill wanted a new commander for the 8th Army in North Africa, someone who would instil it with confidence and lead it to victory. His choice was General Gott who was unfortunately killed when his plane was shot down. Montgomery was sent to replace him. In late 1943 when a commander for 21 Army Group was being sought the first choice of Churchill, Eisenhower and anyone else of influence was General Alexander. In the event the Campaign in Italy proved so difficult that it was though unwise to move Alexander and Montgomery got the job.

General Montgomery had many excellent qualities but modesty and tact were not among them. He was the fourth son of the Bishop of Tasmania and was brought up in Australia before returning to the UK to go to St Paul’s School, where he excelled at sport, and Sandhurst, where he was not particularly distinguished. He was however a serious soldier, given to thought and study, and had a strong determination to succeed. His career was the balance of regimental service, Staff work, field service, medals and luck required for high command.
- India before World War I
- France 1914 where he won a DSO and was wounded
- Staff appointments for the rest of the war
- A student at Staff College in 1920
- A decade of service in India and the UK on Staff and regimental service
- Instructor at the Staff College, Quetta in 1934
- Brigade commander in the UK in 1937
- Divisional commander in Palestine in 1938
- Commanded 3rd Division in the UK
- France 1940 performed well in the retreat to Dunkirk and was praised by his Corp commander.
- Commanded V Corps in the South East of England
- Commanded South East Command

By 1942 he was a well known figure in the army and known to be capable of undertaking a wide variety of tasks most ably. It seems to be agreed that: 
- He was a great morale builder and spent much time in the UK visiting troops. 
- He was single minded and determined
- He was thorough in planning
- He was loyal to his subordinates and inspired loyalty in them. Most of his key personnel were with him in North Africa and Italy and remained with him until the end of the war.
- He knew when to delegate. Having made a plan or decision he was confident that it would be implements fully and correctly and he did not interfere.

At the same time his positive qualities led to his negative qualities.
- He liked to select his subordinates and these were people who thought like him and would work easily with him. 
- He liked to do things his way and mistrusted plans etc made by others.
- He was a leader not a team player.
- He was overbearing and often rude.

But he won battles and he was a great self publicist. Churchill said of him ‘In defeat, unthinkable. In victory, insufferable’.

He had clear vision and his model for a mechanised army with close integration of all arms in a battle group, with a universal tank and close air support has remained until the present time. 


The Commander
Military Training Pamphlet No23 Part I deals with the General Principles of Operations and in particular the roles of commanders and Staff. The following is a straight quotation –

‘Leadership depends on simple and straightforward human qualities. A leader must have the confidence of his men. He will gain it by commanding their respect. To do so he must possess intelligence, commonsense, determination, enthusiasm, energy and tact. He must display a sense of justice and a sense of humour; cheerfulness in the face of difficulties; readiness to share his men’s hardships, and indifference to personal danger; initiative and readiness to take responsibility; and an obvious pride in his command.

Above all he must possess confidence in himself. This will depend on his having a thorough knowledge of his profession and a sound military judgement. These can be acquired only as the result of study and experience, and they comprise the ability to apply to the ever varying conditions and situations of war those principles which experience has proved to have a dominating influence on military operations.

Every leader must possess a trained imagination. The higher the command, the more important is this quality. A trained imagination is necessary to enable a commander to gauge the qualities and intentions of the enemy, to visualise what will be the effect of his orders on the force under his command, and to give proper weight to the varying conditions under which the troops will have to move or work or fight.

Without a trained imagination, no commander will be able to gauge the fighting qualities of his troops; and unless he can do so he will not be capable of making the best of these qualities and of maintaining the morale of his command.’

How does Montgomery match these requirements? They might have been written about him but were written in 1942. Of course he was not renowned for his tact to outsiders but he was considerate of his own men.


The Plan.
To understand the workings of 21 Army Group Headquarters and in particular the Tactical Headquarters it is necessary to understand the purpose for which it exists. At its simplest level the task of the Commander is to make decisions and the job of the Staff is to make the plan which will put those decisions into action.

Without quoting Military Training Pamphlet No 23 Part I any further it does make it clear that there are certain essential elements.

For every operation a plan is necessary and a commander cannot make a plan until he is quite certain as to what his objective is. Proper weight must then be given to all the factors which might affect the attainment of the objective.

The most important quality of a plan is simplicity. The plan itself should be as simple as possible and should require the simplest and most straightforward action possible.

Information is vital and must be the basis of any plan. A Commander must be provided with accurate and up to date information on the following

i) the numbers, moves, morale and intentions of the enemy
ii) the position and state of his own troops
iii) the nature of the ground over which he is to operate

The information regarding the enemy is the preserve of the Intelligence Staff. They will have the latest and most up to date information based on facts gathered from all parts of the command and from higher commands, in this case the War Office. The information will be collated and assessed and presented to the Commander in the form of succinct reports and maps.

Information regarding his own troops will come from good intercommunication and a high standard of training. Much information will be obtained by personal visits, visits by Liaison Officers and from GHQ Liaison Regiment (Phantom).

Information about the ground will also be the preserve of Intelligence and will be obtained from maps and air photographs in the first instance. Personal reconnaissance, so essential to the commanders of lower formations, is not practical for senior commanders.

Once the objective is clear and the information gathered and assessed the plan will be made by the Staff and presented for the Commanders approval. 

Once the plan is put into action the Commander must be available to monitor progress and make decisions concerning the inevitable unforeseen incidents and obstacles. However the Commander must keep the objective clearly in mind and carry the plan through with determination.

The Commander will have retained reserves under his own control since this is the only way in which he can intervene once the action is started. Subordinates will request reserves but the Commander must prioritise and resist or satisfy the demands in ways which further the plan and objective. To commit reserves unnecessarily is too loose control of the battle, but to fail to meet the objective while still having reserves in hand is the greater error.

The Commander receives the information he needs concerning the current state of the battle, the positions and success of his own troops and the nature of problems encountered by the following
- GHQ Liaison Regiment (Phantom) maintains patrols at divisional and corps headquarters and is able to report almost immediately. 
- Liaison Officers have the Commanders authority to obtain information from subordinate commanders and to explain the commander’s intentions.
- Tactical Air Reconnaissance.


21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters is difficult to describe accurately. Most of the personnel who formed the Tactical Headquarters appear on the War Establishment for Headquarters 21 Army Group or on the establishments of other units formed specifically to serve that headquarters. Personnel are seldom specifically identified as being assigned to Tactical Headquarters.

War Establishment XIV/1/2 has a note listing units and personnel assigned to it.

729 GHQ Car Company War Establishment VIII/714/1
120 Provost Company
21 Army Group Defence Company War Establishment XIV/250/1
21 Army Group Signals.

The same document has a note giving the establishment of tactical headquarters as
21 officer
246 other ranks.

However this does not include the Phantom personnel who were permanent residents at Tactical Headquarters. There may be others. 

War Establishment XIV/153/1 with an effective date of 1 November 1944 is for a new 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters Defence Company. This had an establishment of 213 all ranks and was a considerable increase over the number in the infantry platoon and armoured car company previously allotted from the 21 Army Group Defence Company. 


Commander in Chiefs personal Staff
General, Commander in Chief
General Staff Officer 1st Grade (GSO1), Military Assistant
2 Captain, Aide de Camp
4 Clerk RASC including
Staff Sergeant
Corporal
Lance Corporal
Private


The Military Assistant acted as personal assistant to General Montgomery. As a General Staff Officer he had a good working knowledge of the Staff and Headquarters and thus how things could best be expedited. The post was filled by Lieutenant Colonel C.P.Dawnay. 

The Aides de Camp are listed as Captains but were in fact Majors, promoted perhaps when Montgomery was himself promoted. They were responsible for the Generals personal comfort and well being. One usually accompanied Montgomery when he left Tactical Headquarters and kept notes of all that happened, decisions made and orders given. On return to Headquarters the ADC reported to the Signal Office on the location of headquarters visited. When not otherwise occupied they assisted the Camp Commandant.

There were also personnel assigned from 21 Army Group Headquarters
Camp Commandant.
This was Captain William Woodward. He was responsible for the siting, layout and administration of the Tactical Headquarters area. He was also responsible for local defence. Captain Woodward had previously been a Quartermaster with Phantom.

Signals Officer.
The Signals Officer was Major Haylock and he was responsible for the coordination of communications, for the Liaison Officers and eventually for GHQ Liaison personnel at Tactical Headquarters.

Although not permanently on the establishment there was usually a General Staff Officer at Tactical headquarters as a Liaison Officer between Tactical headquarters and Main Headquarters. Major general De Guigand was also usually at Tactical headquarters although he was responsible for the supervision of Main Headquarters

Medical Officer RAMC
Medical officers orderly
The Medical Officer was Major Hunter.

Batmen for the officers on the scale of 
One per officer of Colonel or above
One between two for Lieutenant Colonel
One between three for Majors, Captains and Lieutenants

cooks
mess stewards
orderlies
Clerks


Tactical headquarters was housed in caravans and tents, ready to move at short notice. Montgomery of course had his three personal caravans. Other senior officers had caravans but most personnel were accommodated in tents. The exception was in the depths of winter 1944/45 when personnel were allowed to set up their headquarters indoors. Tactical Headquarters occupied seven positions between landing in Normandy and crossing the Seine, and occupied another five before settling into winter quarters.

There was a mess tent for the officers, and although Montgomery was Spartan in many ways, he did not smoke or drink and was keen on fresh air, he did like some luxuries. The mess had reasonably comfortable furniture, a large table for the twenty or so officers, a white tablecloth and polished silverware. Drink and cigarettes were permitted, although smoking at breakfast was more than frowned on. Whenever possible the officers had breakfast, lunch and dinner together and the evening meal was formal, and punctual. Food was generally good and cooked by a good army cook.

Visitors were not allowed in the Mess. All visitors except the most exalted (and they were rare) were accommodated in a separate Visitors Mess. As far as possible visitors were limited to Main Headquarters.

When work allowed Montgomery liked a round of golf with his personal Staff, and enjoyed a game of Bridge in the evening. He was usually in bed by 10pm.

Montgomery’s personal batman was accommodated in a tent adjacent to the caravans and there was a bell push in each by which he could be summoned. Apparently Montgomery liked the batman assigned to the Chief of Staff, Major General De Guigand, better than the one assigned to him and so he swopped. 

Finally Montgomery did like his headquarters to have a good view and generally had his caravans sited on a gentle slope with trees behind. As Commander in Chief he was entitled to fly the Union Jack over his headquarters and did so when it was considered safe. It would have made a splendid aiming point. 

There was an airstrip near by. This was simply a suitably level grass area free from obstructions. From here Montgomery could fly forward to visit units and subordinate headquarters. He was assigned a Miles M.38 Messenger as his personal aircraft. 


Vehicles known to be attached to 21 Army Group Tactical HQ from 729 GHQ Car Company. 
These vehicles would come complete with drivers who were on the establishment of the Car Company.

7 motor cycle
7 car 5cwt 4 4 (jeep)
2 car 4 seater 4 2
5 car 4 seater 4 4
4 car 6 seater 4 2
5 15cwt 4 2 GS
1 15cwt 4 2 water
10 3ton 4 2 GS
2 3ton 4 2 Office
4 Class 1 Caravan
2 Class II Caravan
1 Special Armoured Car
1 3ton 4 4 TEV
1 3ton 4 4 cipher office


Car 4 seater 4 2.
These were standard Staff cars. In 21 Army Group headquarters the following were used.

Car 4 seater 4 2 Humber Snipe Mk2. This was a militarised Humber Super Snipe Saloon. Based on the pre war civilian saloon car it had wider wings to cover the wider 9.00-13 tyres. Engine was a 4 litre, 6 cylinder unit giving 85bhp. It had a roof luggage rack with canvas cover.

Car 4 seater 4 2 Open Tourer, Humber Snipe. This was as the saloon but with only two doors and a folding canvas top and square windscreen. Montgomery used an open topped tourer but others may not have been so hardy. Even Montgomery may have used it only when touring troops and having his photograph taken. Although his ‘Old Faithful’ Humber Tourer from his 8th Army days is preserved this was not used in 21 Army Group. Interestingly some of the open tourers were given closed bodywork after the war by Karmann.

Car 4 seater 4 2 Ford WOA1. This was the Ford equivalent of the Humber Snipe. It had 6inch shorter wheelbase and was one foot shorter overall. It used a Ford V8 engine of 85bhp. After the war Ford demilitarised it and sold it as the 3.5litre V8 Pilot. 

Car 4 seater 4 4 was the Humber Heavy Utility. These were a roomy four seater, with two folding seats in the rear. The rear door was split horizontally so that when it was opened up and canvas side screens fitted it could be used for sleeping. There was a map table behind the front seats. Four wheel drive and an independent front suspension gave good cross country performance. Some later versions were modified for senior officers by having a sliding roof, wind down windows, interior lighting and map reading lamp and armrests. 

Car 6 seater 4 2.
Normally this nomenclature was applied to the Humber Pullman limousine. However in this case it may well be that the two car 6 seater 4 2 are in fact both Rolls Royce Wraiths. Montgomery had two such cars in NW Europe. In some establishments however it was used for the 4 2 Heavy Utility, usually a Ford WOA2. This was a estate car version of the WOA1 saloon. The new terminology presumably distinguished it from the 4 4 Humber Heavy Utility

Car 6 seater 4 2 limousine, Humber Pullman. This was a longer version of the Humber Snipe, having a one foot one inch longer wheelbase. 7.00-16 tyres were fitted. There was a sliding glass partition behind the driver. Two of the seats were fold down seats. There was a roof luggage rack with canvas cover. 

Car 5cwt 4 4
This was the US jeep. Most in British service were Ford.  
The seven jeeps listed are thought to have been used by the Liaison Officers.

Special Armoured Car
This was a stripped Staghound fitted as an armoured limousine for the use of Montgomery in dangerous situations. Staghounds were available in considerable quantity and were modified as wireless vehicles and battlefield runabouts. They had pretty well the same armour as a tank but were faster and more manoeuvrable. They were also roomy. 

Caravans.  
Montgomery’s caravans were all one offs.

Leyland Retriever 3ton 6 4 with Office Caravan Body.
This was the first to be taken into use. It was an Italian body mounted on a Leyland Retriever 6 4 3ton chassis. It had been captured, converted and used by Montgomery’s predecessor. In NW Europe it was used as an office. 

Mack NR 10ton 6 4 with Sleeping Caravan Body.
This was also a captured Italian body but mounted on a 10ton 6 4 Mack NR chassis. This was used in Italy before being refurbished for NW Europe. It was used as a sleeping caravan and had a fold down bed, a bath, a shower and wardrobe space.

Fordson 7V with Map Caravan Body.
This was purpose built for Montgomery. It was a semi trailer with ample wall space for maps, and had two small desks at the front.

It is not known what types of caravans were used apart from Montgomery’s personal trio. Early in the campaign the most common types were based on existing 3 ton canvas covered trucks. The Bedford QLT was modified with internal fittings, a sheet metal roof, wooden sides and a door at the rear. The Canadian CMP 3ton body 5F was similarly modified. It retained its canvas roof but many were fitted with internal panelling. Later caravans were specially built house type bodies on Bedford QL and QLT chassis. All these caravans had an office at the rear and a sleeping compartment at the front. 

3ton 4 2 were Bedford OY. They were built with Office bodies as well as GS. It is not known which type of office body was fitted to the two at Tactical Headquarters. Most were conversions of GS lorries but there were some very elaborate conversions with additional tented accommodation down each side, and even at the rear.

15cwt 4 2 GS Signals is an inaccurate description but is probably Bedford MW Fitted for Wireless. These were used by units rather than Royal Signals.

3ton 4 4 TEV is a telephone exchange. These were mounted on Bedford QL and came in a variety of forms. In this case since it is not Royal Signals it is probably equipped with an exchange for the internal use of tactical headquarters.

3ton 4 4 cipher office was similar to the TEV but was fitted with cipher equipment.

Vehicles known to be attached to 21 Army Group Tactical HQ from 21 Army Group Signals
3 motorcycle
1 jeep
2 15cwt 4 2 GS
2 3ton 4 4 wireless
1 3ton 4 4 cipher office
2 trailer, Beam Wireless No 10.

This is believed to have been from a Wireless Carrier Section, War Establishment IV/275/1. These sections formed a chain reaching from 21 Army Tactical Headquarters to 21 Army main and Rear Headquarters and ultimately all the way back to the UK. There were also spurs to 2 Army and 1 Canadian Army. Each Wireless set No 10 had ten channels. Each trailer needed a Bedford QL 3ton 4 4 Wireless lorry to tow it and to house personnel to operate and maintain the equipment. They were wireless equipped for communication to other links in the chain.

Note that there seem to be no large wireless sets or vehicles listed. A wise precaution perhaps. A volume of wireless traffic and the presence of aerials would give away the location. Beam wireless sets were not open to interception.


Army Group Squadron, GHQ Liaison Regiment (Phantom)
The role of the Army group Squadron was unusual because it was sent to France to provide General (as he then was) Montgomery’s Tactical headquarters with information on the US Corps which served under him in Normandy. At first patrols reported directly to Squadron Headquarters at 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters but later they reported to Phantom Regimental headquarters. Army Group Squadron Headquarters remained at 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters and performed for that headquarters the same functions that the Army Squadrons performed for Army Headquarters. All confirmed information was displayed on the confirmed map and a fully up to date picture was available for the Commander in Chief at all times. Information was received directly from Phantom Regimental Headquarters and the two Army Squadron Headquarters so that the maps at 21 Army Group Headquarters, Army Headquarters and Corp Headquarters all agreed. Eventually the Phantom patrols and the Liaison officers worked together and set up a common operations room. 

Squadron headquarters
This headquarters remained under canvas at 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters. The operational centre was based in two vehicles which parked tail to tail with a canvas penthouse between them. One vehicle was a Bedford QLR House Type I with six R107 receivers. The other was a Bedford QLT troop carrier converted to an office. Squadron headquarters remained at Tactical Headquarters. Patrols were sent out subordinate units. Originally there were six patrols. Later J troop was used to form a further two patrols. Eventually they detached for other duties leaving only the squadron headquarters to present information, and to listen in to subordinate headquarters wireless traffic using its Wireless Lorry Type I.
Personnel included
Major
Captain, Intelligence
Squadron Sergeant Major
Sergeant
4 Corporal
29 trooper
batman driver
Corporal Clerk
3 driver IC
4 intelligence dutyman
4 motorcyclist
storeman
3 cook
plus Royal Signals
Subaltern
Sergeant
6 driver mechanic
electrician
instrument mechanic
batman
12 operator

Vehicles included
6 motorcycle
1 car 5cwt 4 4 (jeep)
2 15cwt GS
4 15cwt Wireless House
1 15cwt 4 4 (White)
2 3ton 4 4 GS
1 3ton 4 4 QLT
1 3ton 4 4 Wireless I
2 10cwt trailer

Patrols
Motorcycle
despatch rider
Motorcycle
cipher Corporal
Jeep
Subaltern, batman driver
Carries wireless receiver R107
Tows a 10cwt trailer
15cwt 4 4 armoured truck (White)
2 operator, driver mechanic
Carries Wireless set No22 (later Wireless set Canadian No9) and receiver R107 


Liaison Officers.
General Staff Officer 1st Grade
7 General Staff officers 2nd Grade
2 Staff lieutenants
2 lieutenants

Liaison Officers were responsible for visiting subordinate headquarters in lieu of the commander and reporting back directly to the commander. They would also be available to explain the commander’s intentions and interpret his orders. Although not of high rank they could talk to major generals and lieutenant generals with the full authority of the commander. They were also relied on to report back any problems and difficulties. The General Staff Officer 1st Grade deployed the team. Usually a particular liaison officer liaised with the same formation so that a working relationship was developed. Each morning the General Staff Officer 1st Grade held a briefing and instructed the Liaison Officers. The Liaison Officers then visited the headquarters to which they had been assigned and collected information which was reported personally to the Commander in Chief each evening. Information was then reported to the Operations Room and displayed on the situation map.

Liaison Officers were always very active but when there was a large operation in the final stages of planning and actually being implemented they worked very long hours and travelled many miles. It is recorded that in one three week period the Liaison Officers wore out or wrecked an average of two jeeps each. Since there are seven Liaison Officers, General Staff Officer 2nd Grade and seven jeeps it is assumed that each Liaison Officer had a jeep.

The Staff lieutenants and the lieutenants normally remained at headquarters to keep the situation maps up to date, process reports and prepare briefings.

Known to be attached to Tactical Headquarters 21 Army Group from 120 Provost Company.
This seems to be a standard Corp of Military Police section. It was responsible for signposting Tactical Headquarters, providing protection details, controlling access to the headquarters camp and controlling the movement and parking of vehicles within the camp. On the move it was responsible for marking, and clearing, the route.

Motorcycle 1
Corporal
Motorcycle 2
Corporal
Car 5cwt 4 4 (jeep)
Sergeant, Lance Corporal driver IC
15cwt truck GS
Lance Corporal driver IC

Motorcycle 3
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 4
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 5
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 6
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 7
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 8
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 9
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 10
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 11
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 12
Lance Corporal
Motorcycle 13
Lance Corporal

Personnel
Sergeant
2 Corporal
2 Lance Corporal driver
11 Lance Corporal

The Sergeant commands the section and hands out assignments. There are no Private s in the Corp of Military Police so that the lowest rank is Lance Corporal. However 50% are acting Lance Corporals who have one stripe and the authority but not the pay. 

The authority of military policeman was probably even greater than that of civilian policemen. They had authority to stop all personnel up to the rank of Brigadier. Even generals would think carefully before disobeying an MP in red cap, white arm bands and white webbing.

21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters Defence Company.  
The note attached to War Establishment XIV/1/2 of 18 October 1944 lists the following as being attached to 21 Army Group Tactical Headquarters from 21 Army Group Defence Company.

2 motorcycle
2 15cwt 4 2 GS
1 3ton 4 4 Bedford QLT troop carrier
3 armoured cars.

This amounts to a small headquarters with one infantry platoon and one armoured car troop. At this time the armoured cars were Humbers.

Headquarters  
Motorcycle
Subaltern
15cwt GS
driver IC, batman

Ground defence platoon 1
Motorcycle
Subaltern
15cwt GS
driver IC, batman
Bedford QLT 4 4
driver IC, Sergeant, 3 Corporal, 21 rifleman

Armoured car section.
Armoured car
Subaltern, gunner operator, driver mechanic
Armoured car
Sergeant, gunner operator, driver mechanic
Armoured car.
Corporal, gunner operator, driver mechanic

However War establishment XIV/153/1 of 1 November is for 21 Army group Tactical Headquarters Defence Company which gives a much stronger unit. It is thought that in this case the War Establishment lagged behind reality. Montgomery’s Tactical Headquarters was given stronger protection very early in the campaign. His habit of siting the headquarters well forward was a security nightmare and at the first location a German sniper was found within yards of the general’s caravans. 

Company Headquarters
5 motorcycle
5 jeep
1 4 seat car
1 15cwt GS
7 3ton 4 4 GS
1 water trailer
49 all ranks

Infantry portion
Ground defence platoon 1
Motorcycle
Subaltern
15cwt GS
driver IC, batman
Bedford QLT 4 4
driver IC, Sergeant, 3 Corporal, 21 rifleman

Ground defence platoon 2
Motorcycle
Subaltern
15cwt GS
driver IC, batman
Bedford QLT 4 4
driver IC, Sergeant, 3 Corporal, 21 rifleman

Ground defence platoon 3
Motorcycle
Subaltern
15cwt GS
driver IC, batman
Bedford QLT 4 4
driver IC, Sergeant, 3 Corporal, 2 rifleman

Ground defence platoon 4
Motorcycle
Subaltern
15cwt GS
driver IC, batman
Bedford QLT 4 4
driver IC, Sergeant, 3 Corporal, 2 rifleman


Armoured portion
Intercommunication troop
Humber scout car 1
driver operator, driver IC
Humber scout car 2
driver operator, driver IC
Humber scout car 3
driver operator, driver IC

Armoured car troop 1
Staghound armoured car
Captain, Corporal driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Staghound armoured car
Sergeant, driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Staghound armoured car
Corporal, driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic

Armoured car troop 2
Staghound armoured car
Subaltern, Corporal driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Staghound armoured car
Sergeant, driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Staghound armoured car
Corporal, driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic

Armoured car troop 3
Staghound armoured car
Subaltern, Corporal driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Staghound armoured car
Sergeant, driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Staghound armoured car
Corporal, driver operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic

Tank troop
Cromwell tanks were used partly because they were available in quantity and partly because they were fast.
Cromwell tank
Subaltern, Corporal driver operator, gunner operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Cromwell tank
Sergeant, driver operator, gunner operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic
Cromwell tank
Corporal, driver operator, gunner operator, gunner mechanic, driver mechanic

Markings.
Tactical Headquarters vehicles all carried two vehicle signs-
- The arm of service square which was black for headquarters vehicles. There was a diagonal white bar to indicate army group. The unit number was 8, painted in white. Tactical headquarters vehicles carried a small white letter T in the lower left hand corner
- The sign for 21 Army Group. This was a black rectangle on which there was a red shield with a blue cross. Gold crossed swords were superimposed.

Montgomery’s personal vehicles carried the following census numbers

Rolls Royce M 5109233
Leyland caravan L 4410754
Mack caravan L 1308619
Fordson caravan H 5828981

Photographs show that none of the above vehicles carried Allied stars, although they may have done so early in the campaign. Similarly the three caravans were original painted brown with black Mickey Mouse Ear patterns. Later photographs show the caravans were plain green. Presumably the ruling that vehicles should not be repainted for purposes of uniformity or aesthetics did not apply to Field Marshals. 

As Commander in Chief Montgomery was entitled to fly the Union Jack on any vehicle in which he was travelling. This was usually attached to a short flagmast fastened to a socket on the radiator cap of his personal cars. As a Field Marshall he also carried a star plate on any vehicle in which he was travelling. This was a red plate with a row of five gold six pointed stars.  

When both the Chief of the Imperial General Staff (Alanbrooke) and the Commander in Chief (Mongomery) were in the same car two Union Jacks were flown. That of the CIGS was larger and had the crown surmounted by a lion in the centre of the flag. 

Field Marshal Montgomery’s personal vehicles
Rolls Royce Wraith. M 5109233.This was a 1939 model Wraith Series C originally ordered with a custom body by Windover for the Maharajah of Gwalior. This was not delivered because of the war and was purchased in 1944 by the Ministry of War Transport for the use of Montgomery. He used it in the UK and NW Europe.

Rolls Royce Wraith. FLD 99. This was a similar chassis to the above but had a different bodywork by Mulliner. This was also built in 1939 and was donated by the owner. It is not clear if it had a census number in the war but it did have one post war. FLD 99 is its civilian registration. Montgomery used it in the UK before D day and then took it to the Continent, landing on D + 3. He liked it so much he bought it for his own use after the war. 

Both cars are preserved in working order. M5109233 became 16 YF 68 after the war while FLD 99 became 16 YF 67. They were never repainted and had signs on plates fitted to the bumper, not on the bodywork. They remained throughout in the splendid Rolls Royce black finish with heavy chrome plated radiator and trim.

16 YF 68 was sold in the 1950s and is preserved in the USA
16 YF 67 remained in service until 1965 and was preserved at the Museum of Army Transport.

Humber Tourer.
The Humber Tourer used by Montgomery was a standard vehicle of its type and make. Based on the pre war Humber Super Snipe it was an open topped four seater, four door car. The canvas roof folded down and was protected by a canvas cover when not in use. There was a rail behind the front seats to which a folding glass screen could be fitted to protect the rear seat passengers from the slipstream. The wings were larger and wider than on the civilian vehicle to accommodate the larger wheels with military pattern tyres. Montgomery’s car differed from the standard pattern in having
- a spotlight mounted centrally in front of the radiator 
- two large horns, one on either side of the spotlight  
- a red star plate with four, later five, stars
- a flag Staff from which a Union Jack was flown when he was in the car.

Census number was M 239485. A white star in a circle was painted on the bonnet top.

Caravans.
Leyland Retriever Caravan.
This was a captured Italian caravan mounted on a Leyland 6 4 chassis. Montgomery used it as sleeping and office accommodation in N. Africa but for NW Europe it was refurbished and used only as an office. It was divided into a small toilet area and a larger office area. The access door was at the rear. The offside of the office had a three seater couch with black leather cushions, a low cupboard and a tall cupboard. The nearside had a long desk with a linoleum top, a wall mounted cupboard over the desk and a tall cupboard in the rear corner. The walls and partition were panelled and varnished wood. There were two windows on each side. There were two desk lamps plus a wall light mounted on the partition. The toilet area was painted off white and contained a chemical closet box and a washbasin.

Mack NR Caravan.
This was another captured Italian body, mounted on a Mack 6 4 chassis. This was used as a sleeping caravan. It was spacious and comfortably equipped. The large sleeping compartment had a bed across the rear, a low cupboard on the nearside and a wardrobe on the offside. All walls, ceiling and furniture was varnished wood. There was a grey carpet on the floor. The bathroom area was separated from the sleeping compartment by curtains. Inside the curtained area everything was white including a bath and washbasin. 

Fordson Map Caravan.
The map semi trailer was built by the British Trailer Company to Montgomery’s requirements. It was towed by a Fordson 7V tractor. The interior was a simple open space with a desk on either side at the raised front end. The rest of the space was flat floored and the walls were covered with mapboards. There was storage for maps in the rear corners. Light came from windows over the desks at the front and from roof mounted dome lights. The floor was covered in black rubber and the ceiling painted off white.

All three of these caravans still exist and can be seen at the Imperial War Museum, Duxford.  

Montgomery’s personal aircraft.
Miles Messenger.
The Messenger was designed as an AOP and it was able to operate in all weather from small grass strips surrounded by trees. It was easy to maintain and easy to fly. This plane was rejected as an AOP but later 21 were ordered for VIP communications. In this role it could carry three passengers. In 1944 there were only two prototypes available and these went to Montgomery and Air Chief Marshal Tedder. 

Montgomery’s Messenger was RG 333. It was camouflaged in brown and green with RAF roundels and black and white invasion stripes. The Messenger had three tail fins so that the two outer ones carried red white and blue markings while the centre one carried the Commander in Chiefs Union Jack.  

Douglas Dakota.
Unofficially Montgomery also had a Dakota transport aircraft for his personal use. This was not provided by the RAF but was given to him by General Eisenhower in August 1943. This aircraft was used in Italy and then returned to the UK with Montgomery and was used in 21 Army Group until it was destroyed on the ground by the Luftwaffe on January 1st 1945. Eisenhower provided a replacement which remained in service until the end of the war.

Source: http://ww2talk.com/index.php?threads/21-army-group-headquarters.23673/ 

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